Example with Solution of analytical reasoning problem of Statement and Conclusion

Directions:  In the question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions and decide which of them logically follow/s beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

 

Statement: The Indian government has revised its so-called ‘5/20’ policy, removing a restriction that domestic carriers have to operate for five years before they can fly abroad. They must, however, deploy 20 aircraft, or 20 per cent of total aircraft capacity, whichever is higher, for flights inside India.

Conclusion I: Airline companies like Vistara and Air Asia, who also operate domestic Indian flights but have much less than five years of flying operations inside the country, can begin flying overseas from India as soon as they are able to acquire a fleet of 20 aircraft

Conclusion II: Overseas carriers like Air France and British Airways, who have not yet operated domestic Indian flights, too can operate domestic Indian flights by earmarking 20 aircraft from their respective existing fleets for exclusive services within India.

A)   If only I follows
B)   If only II follows
C)   If either I or II follows
D)   If neither I nor II follows; and
E)   If both I and II follow
Correct answer: A

Solution :
The statement tells us that the new policy is applicable to domestic air companies, i.e. it would be applicable to Vistara and Air Asia, given that they have operated domestic Indian flights, even if for less than 5 years. These carriers will get to fly internationally from India as soon as they deploy 20 aircraft exclusively for domestic flights, and this may take less than the originally stipulated five years of domestic service. Thus conclusion I is valid

But conclusion II is invalid. Air France and British Airways have not yet operated domestic Indian flights. Thus they are not eligible to benefit from the revised policy, more so as they already operate international flights from India.

Directions: Given below is a pair of events A and B. You have to read both the events and decide the nature of their relationship. You have to assume that the information given in A and B is true, and you will not assume anything beyond the given information in deciding the answer.

 

Event A: Scientists have succeeded in altering the patterns on a butterfly’s wings, called eyespots, by tweaking just one or two genes

Event B: Scientists are surprised to find that that only one or two genes are required to add to or subtract from an eyespot pattern whereas dozens or hundreds of genes are required to make it

A)   If A is the cause and B its effect
B)   If B is the cause and A its effect
C)   If A and B are effects of a common cause
D)   If A and B are both independent causes
E)   If A and B are both effects of independent causes
Correct answer: A

Solution :
Event A is in the present perfect tense and event B is in the simple present. Thus, since tense does not tell us about a possible causal relation between the two events, let us look for other clues.

Event A tells us that a change in eyespot design is enabled by altering only one or two genes possessed by a butterfly. The implicit assumptions are that a butterfly possesses more than just one or two genes, and that there is somehow an element of the unexpected about this discovery. This element of surprise is conveyed by the use of the expression ‘just one or two genes.’

And event B reveals what it is that is surprising about this discovery. It tells us that dozens or even hundreds of genes are required for creating a whole eyespot, and that therefore scientists  are surprised that making changes in an eyespot should require tweaking, i.e. altering, only one or two them. The implicit assumption is that making a whole complex design and making changes in that design are fundamentally analogous processes and that therefore it is surprising that the first one should involve so many genes and the second one so few of them.

Thus this line of argumentation is valid, and we can say with a degree of certainty that A is the cause of B.

Directions: The question below is in the form of a statement followed by two courses of action numbered I and II. A course of action is a step or an administrative decision to be taken for improvement, follow-up, or further action in regard to the problem, policy etc., on the basis of the information given in the statement. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true and then decide which of the two suggested courses of action logically follows for pursuing. 

 

Statement: The incidence of abuse of seniors and elderly family members in India is growing by the year

Course of action I: The government and other concerned organizations should launch a public campaign to make senior citizens aware of the Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act 2007 and its abuse-redressal mechanisms.

Course of action II: The government should pass appropriate laws for ensuring that childless couples who are unable to self-support themselves get compulsory maintenance from other relatives

 

A)   if only I follows
B)   if only II follows
C)   if either I or II follows
D)   if neither I nor II follows, and
E)   if both I and II follow
Correct answer: A

Solution :
The statement informs us that the incidence of abuse of seniors and family elders is growing every year in India. A part of this problem is that most senior citizens are unaware of the existence of legal provisions to redress their plight. Course of action I is valid because it highlights this aspect of the problem. The suggested course of action is in line with the universally valid assumption that it is the duty of the government do everything possible to ensure the welfare of citizens.

But course of action II is invalid. While it does make sense that childless elders be taken care of by their other relatives, it does not mention the fact that many childless couples may not have other relatives, or that the latter may not have the means to support their elderly relatives. This is a powerful limiting condition that finds no mention in course of action II, which is why it gets rejected. Note that the real offending word in this context is ‘compulsory.’ It is a definitive word that takes away from the force of the argument, for reasons that we have just noted.

Directions Q (1 to 5): Read the passage given below and answer the question that follows it. 

Passage: Smell is one of the senses of humans and animals, and there have been many efforts to build an electronic nose that can sense many different kinds of smells. When we smell something, we detect chemical molecules in the air. Similarly, an electronic nose detects chemical compounds using rotational spectroscopy. A rotational spectrometer generates and transmits electromagnetic waves over a wide range of frequencies, and analyses how the waves are attenuated to determine what chemicals are present as well as their concentrations in a sample. The system can detect low levels of chemicals present in human breath.

Breath contains information about practically every part of the human body. Breaths contain gases from the stomach and that come out of blood when it comes into contact with air in the lungs. The breath test is a blood test without taking blood samples.

The proposed electronic nose can detect gas molecules with more specificity and sensitivity than breathalysers, which can confuse acetone for ethanol. The distinction is important, for example, for patients with Type 1 diabetes who have high concentrations of acetone in their breath. Imaging applications, hearing devices, touch sensors – what we are talking about here is developing a device that imitates another one of our sensing modalities and making it affordable and widely available.

  1. The proposed electronic nose will reduce the need for sample-based blood tests

 

A)   If the inference is ‘definitely true’, i.e. it properly follows from the statement of facts given
B)   If the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’ in the light of the facts given.
C)   If the ‘data are inadequate’, i.e. from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false
D)   If the inference is ‘probably false’, though not ‘definitely false’ in the light of the facts given.
E)   If the inference is ‘definitely false’, i.e. it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.
Correct answer: B

 

 

Solution :
 The passage tells us directly that the manner in which the proposed electronic nose carries out a breath test shows that it is a virtual blood test, i.e. a blood test without taking blood samples. Under the valid assumption that a blood test without taking actual blood samples would be the preferred choice for most people, it would be right to conclude that people would prefer to have their blood tested through an electronic nose than sample testing of their actual blood. It would then be correct to conclude what is stated in the above inference. But the force of the argument is reduced because of the use of the definite verb “will reduce,” as a result of which it must be taken as probably true, not definitely true

 

  1. The pattern of weakening of the electromagnetic waves generated by a rotational spectrometer may not indicate which chemicals are contained in a tested sample

 

A)   If the inference is ‘definitely true’, i.e. it properly follows from the statement of facts given
B)   If the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’ in the light of the facts given.
C)   If the ‘data are inadequate’, i.e. from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false
D)   If the inference is ‘probably false’, though not ‘definitely false’ in the light of the facts given.
E)   If the inference is ‘definitely false’, i.e. it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.
Correct answer: D

Solution :
This is what is stated in the passage: A rotational spectrometer generates and transmits electromagnetic waves over a wide range of frequencies, and analyses how the waves are attenuated to determine what chemicals are present as well as their concentrations in a sample

The essential prior knowledge required for answering this question correctly is as follows:

a.            The word attenuated means weakened, diluted, etc.

b.            The expression “how the waves are attenuated” alludes to the pattern of weakening of the said waves

With this in mind, it is easy to figure out that the above inference is false. It would have been true if it had “may indicate” in place of “may not indicate.”

And since “may not indicate” is non-definite, the force of the argument is increased, implying that we will have to take it as “probably false,” not “definitely false.” The inference would have been “definitely false” had it said “does not indicate” or “will not indicate.”

Note: Vocabulary plays a crucial role in inference-making. A set of inference questions on a given passage almost invariably contains one question based directly on vocabulary. The inference above is an example. It would be virtually impossible to answer this question correctly if you did not know the meaning of the word ‘attenuated.’

  1. Breathalysers could confuse Type I diabetics for drunkards

 

A)   If the inference is ‘definitely true’, i.e. it properly follows from the statement of facts given
B)   If the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’ in the light of the facts given.
C)   If the ‘data are inadequate’, i.e. from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false
D)   If the inference is ‘probably false’, though not ‘definitely false’ in the light of the facts given.
E)   If the inference is ‘definitely false’, i.e. it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.
Correct answer: A

Solution :
 

This is what the passage tells us: The proposed electronic nose can detect gas molecules with more specificity and sensitivity than breathalysers, which can confuse acetone for ethanol. The distinction is important, for example, for patients with Type 1 diabetes who have high concentrations of acetone in their breath.

Type 1 diabetics have a high concentration of acetone in their breath. And since a breathalyser can confuse acetone for ethanol, it could easily confuse a Type 1 diabetic for a drunkard. The underlying assumption is that ethanol is associated with alcoholic drinks but acetone is not. Thus this inference sounds true. And since it uses the non-definite “could confuse” we will have to categorise it as “definitely true,” instead of “probably true.”

Note: General knowledge is equally crucial for making correct inferences or judging their truth value. It would be impossible to answer this question without first knowing that ethanol is a constituent of alcoholic drinks but that acetone is not

  1. There would now have to be taste sensors to get the whole range of artificial human sensors

 

A)   If the inference is ‘definitely true’, i.e. it properly follows from the statement of facts given
B)   If the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’ in the light of the facts given.
C)   If the ‘data are inadequate’, i.e. from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false
D)   If the inference is ‘probably false’, though not ‘definitely false’ in the light of the facts given.
E)   If the inference is ‘definitely false’, i.e. it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.
Correct answer: A

Solution :
 

Towards the end of the passage we get this: Imaging applications, hearing devices, touch sensors – what we are talking about here is developing a device that imitates another one of our sensing modalities

This implies that we already have artificial sensors of human sensory perceptions like eye-aided vision (imaging applications), ear-aided listening (hearing devices) and skin-aided touch (touch sensors). The invention of the electronic nose means that an artificial sensor for the fourth human sensory perception, i.e. nose-aided smelling, is also now available. And this implies in turn that only an artificial sensor for the fifth, i.e. the last, human sensory perception, which is tongue-aided taste, remains to be invented.

Thus the inference above is definitely true.

  1. A man driving under the influence of a single shot of whiskey can evade detection by a breathalyser but not an electronic nose

 

A)   If the inference is ‘definitely true’, i.e. it properly follows from the statement of facts given
B)   If the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’ in the light of the facts given.
C)   If the ‘data are inadequate’, i.e. from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false
D)   If the inference is ‘probably false’, though not ‘definitely false’ in the light of the facts given.
E)   If the inference is ‘definitely false’, i.e. it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.
Correct answer: C

Solution :
 

The relevant sentences from the passage are as follows:

a.            The system can detect low levels of chemicals present in human breath.

b.            The proposed electronic nose can detect gas molecules with more specificity and sensitivity than breathalysers

Thus it is clear that the likelihood of detecting low levels of alcohol in one’s breath is greater with the help of an electronic nose than a breathalyser. But the inference above converts this relative estimation into an absolute one. It is correct in that a man driving with very little alcohol in his blood can evade detection by a breathalyser, and the best that we can conclude from this is that the chances of detection are higher with an electronic nose than a breathalyser. But there is no basis to add that such a man can never evade detection by an electronic nose. We have already noted, that even in the case of the breathalyser, the right conclusion was that a man driving with very little alcohol in his blood “can evade” it. Had it said “will evade it” or “will not evade it,” it would crossover from being a true or a false inference to being a data inadequate type

 

Directions: The question given below is a statement or passage followed by assumptions marked I, II and III. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the given assumptions and decide which of them is/are implicit in the statement

The Committee for Evolution of the New Education Policy (CENEP) headed by former cabinet secretary TSR Subramanian has submitted its report. The report warns against allowing educational institutions to become “political arenas to settle national rivalries.” Says, it is essential to find the right balance between free speech and the primary purpose for which the universities have been established. It also underlines on the need to restrict period of stay of students on campus saying the main interest of many of these may not be to pursue learning but “to follow a political agenda.” The report also suggests it may be worthwhile to consider non-recognition of student groups that are explicitly based on caste and religion.

 

Which of the following assumptions is/are implicit in the report of the CENEP?

Assumption I: Protecting the right to free speech inside universities may sometimes involve going against the primary purpose for which those universities were set up

Assumption II: Not all students who stay for long inside university campuses have academic pursuits in mind

Assumption III: Political parties do not wish to take their rivalry to college and university campuses but they are forced to do so nevertheless

 

A)   I only
B)   I only
C)   I and II only
D)   II only
E)   I, II and III
Correct answer: C

Solution :
The report mentions that it is essential to find the right balance between free speech and the primary purpose for which the universities have been established. This suggests that the right balance between the right to free speech inside campuses and the need to go by the primary purpose of existence of universities is not achieved. Now it is clear that assumption I is implicit

And the passage also underlines on the need to restrict period of stay of students on campus saying the main interest of many of these may not be to pursue learning but “to follow a political agenda.” This observation would not have been made if there were no such students as mentioned in the observation. In other words, there must indeed be some students who overstay on university campuses to pursue political rather than academic objectives. Thus assumption II is implicit as well.

But assumption III is ruled out at a glance. Not a single word in the passage can be said to imply that political parties are forced into doing politics on campuses against their will. Apply the existence-non-existence rule of assumptions to get the justification for this answer

 

Directions:  In the question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions and decide which of them logically follow/s beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

 

Statement: In many countries that allow for female fighter pilots in their air force, the latter have rarely, if ever, been used in actual combat scenarios

Conclusion I: The presence of female fighter pilots in the air force of many countries is mostly symbolic

Conclusion II: Female fighter pilots in the air force of many countries may never have been used in actual combat operations

 

A)   If only conclusion I follows
B)   If only conclusion II follows
C)   If either I or II follows
D)   If neither I nor II follows; and
E)   If both I and II follow.
Correct answer: E

Solution :
 

The statement tells us that there are some countries that allow for female fighter pilots in their air force. In many of these countries, they have been either rarely used in actual combat operations or not used in that role at all. In other words, their presence in national air forces is not for real, rather it is symbolic. The symbolism obviously relates to the discourse surrounding gender equality. Conclusion I is thus a valid one

Conclusion II is valid too. Refer to the second sentence of the above paragraph: In many of these countries, they have been either rarely used in actual combat operations or not used in that role at all.  The underlined section suggests one of the possibilities the other one being that they were used in actual combat operation but only rarely. Conclusion II is valid because it accounts for this possibility with the use of the non-definite ‘may never have been used.’ Had the conclusion employed a definite verb construct like ‘have never been used,’ it would have been invalid

 

Directions: Given below is a pair of events A and B. You have to read both the events and decide the nature of their relationship. You have to assume that the information given in A and B is true, and you will not assume anything beyond the given information in deciding the answer.


Event A
: One of the focus areas of energy sector reforms has been empowerment of consumers by making information available to them through mobile apps.

Event B: The union Power minister has announced a countrywide 24-hour uniform four-digit helpline number that consumers can dial to lodge a complaint about faulty power lines or outages in their area

 

A)   If A is the cause and B its effect
B)   If A is the cause and B its effect
C)   If A and B are effects of a common cause
D)   If A and B are both independent causes
E)   If A and B are both effects of independent causes
Correct answer: A

 

Solution :
 

Both the events are in the present perfect tense. But a closer look at the tense in event A reveals that the said focus area of energy sector reform has continued to be customer empowerment in a particular manner. This is suggested by the verb ‘has been,’ which here implies ‘has continued to be.’

And event B suggests a one-time event that has already taken place. It is clear thus that one of the effects of the continued focus on customer empowerment through mobile app-based data access is the announcement by the power minister. The advent of a countrywide 24-hour uniform four-digit helpline number that consumers can dial to lodge a complaint about faulty power lines or outages in their area is clearly a development in line with the government’s objective of empowering the customer in the said manner

Directions: In the question below is given a statement or passage followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the given assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

 

Statement: On 18 June, over 100,000 Islamic scholars and clerics in Bangladesh issued a fatwa against violent extremism in the country the light of brutal attacks by some Islamists on minorities and secular writers in the Muslim-majority nation.

Assumption I: The fatwa will definitely help in curbing violence even if it may not cause it to stop completely

Assumption II: Most Islamists in Bangladesh think that minorities and secular writers are enemies of the country

 

A)   if only Assumption I is implicit.
B)   if only Assumption II is implicit.
C)   if either Assumption I or Assumption II is implicit.
D)   if neither Assumption I nor Assumption II is implicit
E)   if both Assumption I and Assumption II are implicit
Correct answer: A

Solution :
 

The very first rule regarding assumptions is that a public announcement is made under the expectation that some if not all who are sought to be addressed by it will come across it and do as it says. Applying this rule, it is obvious that the fatwa has been issue under the assumption that it will curb the said violence if not stop it altogether. Thus assumption I is implicit. Had there been no hope of even curbing the violence, the fatwa would not have been issued. Thus assumption I is implicit

But assumption II is not implicit. The statement does not directly state or imply what it is that makes the Bangladesh Islamists attack people from the minorities and secular writers. There is nothing in the statement on the basis of which one could conclude that Islamists in Bangladesh think their targets are enemies of Bangladesh. And the greater problem with assumption II is that it mentions “most Islamists in Bangladesh.” The statement directly mentions “Some Islamists…” on the basis of which it would be wrong to conclude something about “Most Islamists…” Note that even 1 out of 100 can be referred to as “some,” but that “most” would mean more than 50 of them, i.e. a majority of them.

Directions: The question below is in the form of a statement followed by two courses of action numbered I and II. A course of action is a step or an administrative decision to be taken for improvement, follow-up, or further action in regard to the problem, policy etc., on the basis of the information given in the statement. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true and then decide which of the two suggested courses of action logically follows for pursuing. 

 

Statement: The price of pulses in the Indian domestic market has shot up alarmingly, making this crucial source of protein unaffordable for the common Indian.

Course of action I: There should be a constant vigil kept on hoarders and black-marketers of pulses in the country and the government should subsidize the cost of pulse transportation, handling and milling within the country through a pulse price stabilization fund

Course of action II: Alternative sources of protein like fish and eggs should be made available in the Indian market at a reasonable price.

A)   if only I follows
B)   if only II follows
C)   if either I or II follows
D)   if neither I nor II follows, and
E)   if both I and II follow
Correct answer: A

Solution :
 

The statement tells us that pulse prices have shot up dramatically in the Indian market, and that this has made it unaffordable for the common Indian to consume it.

Course of action I is valid because black marketing and hoarding of relatively scarcer commodities like pulses is commonplace in India. These activities contribute in a big way to the problem of inflation in such commodities. If the hoarded pulses are brought out in the open market, their supply will increase and prices go down. And this could be done by setting up a fund specifically to subsidize the price of pulses. Note that the government has already set up such a fund!

But course of action II is invalid. Alternative sources of protein are invariably non-vegetarian items. It would be nearly impossible for the government to bring down their prices. Plus there is the fact that most Indians are vegetarians. On both these counts, course of action II is practical, i.e. it should be done, but it is impracticable, i.e. it would not really be possible to implement it.

 

Directions: In the question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions and decide which of them logically follow/s beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

 

Statement: The adverse effects of anthropogenic climate change are playing out, in real time, before us

Conclusion I: Climate change must no longer be seen as a threat only for the future

Conclusion II: The effects of climate change caused by factors other than human activity are not as serious as the negative climatic effects of human activity

 

A)   If only conclusion I follows
B)   If only conclusion II follows
C)   If either I or II follows
D)   If neither I nor II follows; and
E)   If both I and II follow.
Correct answer: A

 

 

Solution :
It is expected of you that you be aware of the meaning of the adjective ‘anthropogenic.’ It means “man-made.”

Thus the statement tells us that the negative effects of man-made climate change are already being felt, right in front of our eyes. This implies that adverse climate change is already taking place. One has to contrast this conclusion with the commonly held belief that climate change for the worse is either not taking place at all or that it lies in the future.

By reference to the last part of the sentence above, one can see that conclusion I is valid.

But conclusion II does not follow. The passage is about the reality of man-made climate change being present with us already. Nothing can be concluded about the effects of climate change caused by non-human factors. As such, a conclusion about these factors would be a data-inadequate type of inference, and therefore an invalid one.

Directions: In the question below is given a statement or passage followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the given assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

 

  1. Statement:Two innovative technologies for early diagnosis of HIV in infants newly prequalified by WHO will allow many more infants to be diagnosed more quickly and placed on life-saving treatment.

 

Assumption I: Early diagnosis of HIV in infants will increase their chances of survival

Assumption II: The two innovative technologies diagnose HIV infection in infants in a shorter space of time

A)   if only Assumption I is implicit.
B)   if only Assumption II is implicit.
C)   if either Assumption I or Assumption II is implicit.
D)   if neither Assumption I nor Assumption II is implicit.
E)   if both Assumption I and Assumption II are implicit.
Correct answer: E

Solution :
 

The statement tells us that two innovative technologies for HIV detection in infants have been prequalified by the WHO. These will allow for quicker diagnosis of HIV and commencement of life-saving treatment. Since the assumptions are that treatment of a disease begins after its diagnosis and that quicker commencement of treatment increases the chances of survival, assumption I is implicit

And assumption II is also implicit. The statement tells us that the two technologies “will allow many more infants to be diagnosed more quickly…” Thus it is implicit that the two technologies diagnose HIV infection in a shorter space of time. Refer to our coverage of the Adjective-Quality Rule for assumptions to get the justification for this answer

Directions: In the question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions and decide which of them logically follow/s beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

Statement: Babies who are born through Caesarean, exposed to antibiotics and fed on formula milk may have slower growth and lower diversity of microbes in the first year of life. The finding centres on a study of the micro-biome, the mix of bacterial species that live on human skin and in our guts, and that co-evolved with humans to play a positive role in digestion, metabolism, and immunity. As rates of children’s exposure to C-sections, antibiotic use, and formula feeding have increased in recent decades, the incidence of asthma, autoimmune diseases, and obesity has more than doubled.

Conclusion I: Malfunctions in digestion, metabolism and immunity may increase the risk of asthma, autoimmune diseases and obesity

Conclusion II: The micro-biome in infants may be weakened because of exposure to C-sections, antibiotics and formula milk feeding

 

A)   If only conclusion I follows
B)   If only conclusion II follows
C)   If either I or II follows
D)   If neither I nor II follows; and
E)   If both I and II follow
Correct answer: E

 

 

Solution :
 

The statement tells us that “The finding centres on a study of the micro-biome, the mix of bacterial species that live on human skin and in our guts, and that co-evolved with humans to play a positive role in digestion, metabolism, and immunity. As rates of children’s exposure to C-sections, antibiotic use, and formula feeding have increased in recent decades, the incidence of asthma, autoimmune diseases, and obesity has more than doubled.” Note that the micro-biome is stated to be a positive role player in digestion, metabolism and immunity. Since digestion and metabolism are linked to obesity and asthma is an autoimmune disease, it sounds highly likely that the positive effect of a micro-biome is not in evidence here. In other words, with a faulty micro-biome implying a bad effect on digestion, metabolism and immunity, these bad effects lead to associated diseases like asthma and obesity. Conclusion I is thus a valid one

And so is conclusion II. We have noted in the paragraph above that the occurrence of certain diseases is linked to the fact that the micro-biome is not functioning properly, i.e. it is weakened.  In fact this weakening is indicated right at the beginning of the statement through the phrase “lower density of microbes.” Infants who suffer from this condition are typically those that have been born from caesarean sections and exposed to a diet of formula milk and antibiotics. It is clear from this that there is a link between a weakened micro-biome and factors like caesarean births, antibiotic intake and formula feeding for infants.

Directions: The question below is in the form of a statement followed by two courses of action numbered I and II. A course of action is a step or an administrative decision to be taken for improvement, follow-up, or further action in regard to the problem, policy etc., on the basis of the information given in the statement. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true and then decide which of the two suggested courses of action logically follows for pursuing. 


Statement:
 The consumption of tobacco and junk food is picking up alarmingly among India’s school children.

Course of action I: Tobacco and junk food outlets should be banned from educational premises

Course of action II: The academic grades of children found smoking and eating junk food should be reduced

A)   if only I follows
B)   if only II follows
C)   if either I or II follows
D)   if neither I nor II follows, and
E)   if both I and II follow
Correct answer: A

Solution :
 

The statement tells us that tobacco and junk food consumption is picking up among Indian school children in an alarming manner. The underlying assumptions are that tobacco and junk food are available to these children and that the consumption of the two has a bad effect on their health.

Course of action I is valid. We just noted the underlying assumption that tobacco and junk food are available to these children. The question is: from where do school children get these items? Obviously, it is not their guardians who supply the children with tobacco and junk food. Rather it is tobacco and junk food stalls, mostly inside or close to school campuses, which are the real culprit. By banning them from the premises, their main supply channel will be closed, leading to a fall in their consumption by school children. Note that the concerned authorities have already taken such a step in several parts of the country.

But course of action II is invalid. By penalizing the academic performance of a school children who are they are found smoking tobacco and consuming junk food, we will not only fail to address the problem at its root but also create a new problem altogether. Also note that it would be virtually impossible to constantly monitor school children for everything that they do through the course of the day. Thus while course of action I is desirable in some ways, the fact is that it is impracticable, i.e. very difficult to effectively implement

 

Directions: Read the statement given below and answer the question that follows it.

 

  1. Statement: It has been reported in a recent study that intake of moderate quantity of chocolate reduces the risk of falling victim to central nervous system-related illnesses.

Which of the following weakens the finding of the study mentioned in the statement above?

A)   People eat chocolate the most when they are young.
B)   A majority of those not diagnosed with central nervous system-related diseases are either heavy or very light consumers of chocolate.
C)   Chocolate contains nutrients that strengthen the functioning of the central nervous system.
D)   A majority of those suffering from central nervous system-related diseases are middle-aged.
E)   Not all of those that suffer from diabetes have other major ailments.
Correct answer: B

Solution :
 The statement tells us about a study that concludes that moderate intake of milk chocolate reduces the risk of falling victim to central nervous system-related illnesses. And the question asks us to identify the option that weakens this conclusion. Option 1 is ruled out because the relationship between being young and central nervous system-related diseases is not clear. Option 2 sounds convincing straightaway, because it tells us that most people diagnosed with central nervous system-related diseases are either heavy or very light consumers of chocolate. Thus the claim that moderate chocolate consumers are at reduced risk of becoming victims of central nervous system-related illnesses is weakened to the extent that it is mostly non-moderate, i.e. very high or very low, consumers of chocolate who do not get these diseases. Option 3 is ruled out because it strengthens than weakens the finding. If intake of moderate quantity of milk chocolate reduces the risk of falling victim to central nervous system-related illnesses, the reason may well be that milk chocolate contains nutrients that strengthen the functioning of the central nervous system. Option 4 is irrelevant because it talks of middle-aged persons suffering from central nervous system-related diseases; note that the question is about ‘victims of central nervous system-related illnesses,’ not about ‘middle-aged victims of central nervous system-related illnesses.’ And option 5 is ruled out because it tells us about ‘diabetes and other ailments,’ which lie beyond the scope of this question. 2 is the right choice.

 

Directions: Read the statement given below and answer the question that follows it.

Statement: More emails are sent and received on Google than any other internet giant.

  1. Which of the following assumptions is/are implicit in the statement above?
  1. The number of emails sent and received on each internet giant is known.
  1. Google is an internet giant.

A)   Only I
B)   Only II
C)   Either I or II
D)   Neither I nor II
E)   Both I and II
Correct answer: E

Solution :
 Both the assumptions are valid. Only because the number of e-mails sent on each internet giant, and therefore on all internet giants, is known, is it possible to say that Google handles the highest number of e-mails. And since Google is being compared to the other internet giants, it is also implicit that Google itself is an internet giant. E is the right choice.

Directions: In the question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the given assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is/are implicit in the statement.

  1. Statement:Union Human Resource Development (HRD) Minister Prakash Javadekar has inaugurated the super computer PARAM ISHAN at IIT Guwahati campus.

I: IIT Guwahati has the intellectual resources required to use PARAM ISHAN fruitfully.

II: PARAM ISHAN has been created by Indian scientists working in collaboration with the American tech. supergiant IBM.

A)   Only I
B)   Only II
C)   Either I or II
D)   Neither I nor II
E)   Both I and II
Correct answer: A

Solution :
 The statement is that the Union Human Resource Development (HRD) Minister Prakash Javadekar has inaugurated the super computer PARAM ISHAN at the IIT Guwahati campus. It is implicit here that the computer has been set up in the IIT Guwahati Campus under the assumption that the institution has the intellectual resources available to run it fruitfully. Had IIT Guwahati lacked in the knowhow of running this computer, it would not have been set up there. Thus assumption I is implicit. But assumption II is not implicit. The statement neither mentions ‘the American tech. supergiant IBM’ directly nor makes an indirect reference to the company. Thus, applying the Existence-Non-existence Rule for Assumptions, we cannot assume that this company exists in the manner in which assumption II does so. Option A is the right choice.

Source  http://bit.ly/2emAGR1  For  more and  more practice  set of banking exam at  www.oureducity.com

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