Some Important English Vocabulary based questions with Complete analysis

1.TRAVESTY

A) Catalogue
B) Journey
C) Inferno
D) Farce
E) Climax
Correct answer: D
Solution :

The word travesty is an abstract noun that can also be used as a common noun; a travesty is a farce, a sham, a big letdown of expectations.
1. Catalogue (common noun and verb): a thorough list of things, items, articles, etc. (noun); to make a list or to include in a list (verb)
2. Journey (common noun and verb): trip or movement from one place to another (noun); to move from one place to another (verb)
3. Inferno (common noun): big blazing fire; conflagration; hell (figurative meaning)
4. Farce (common noun and abstract noun): a comedy or a comical stage play; a bizarre and absurd situation (common noun); mockery, injustice, letdown of expectations (abstract noun)
5. Climax (common noun): the highest point, especially the highest point of tension and excitement in a story.

4 is the right choice; no other option is an antonym or synonym of the word travesty

2. BREACH

A) Mention
B) Defame
C) Follow
D) Locket
E) Defect
Correct answer: C

Solution :

The word ‘breach’ is a noun and a verb. A breach is a crack or a breakage, a violation or a contravention (noun), and to breach is therefore to break or to violate or to disobey (verb).
1. Mention (noun and verb): A passing reference to something or someone (noun); to refer to something or someone (verb)
2. Defame is a verb. To defame someone or something is to give that person or thing a bad name
3. Follow is a verb. To follow something would be to go along with it, to obey it, to observe it as a practice, etc.
4. Locket is a common noun. It is a part of an ornament like a pendant or a brooch that encases a precious stone or metal.
5. Defect is a verb that means to cross over, especially from one political party to another
Looking at these meanings, one can see that follow is an antonym of breach, whereas no other option can be an antonym or synonym of breach. 3 is the right choice

3. PERSECUTE

A) Sue
B) Foster
C) Prosecute
D) Obey
E) Disallow
Correct answer: B

Solution :

Persecute is a verb; to persecute someone is to oppress and mistreat that person especially because of his/her religion, race, nationality, etc.
1. Sue is a verb. To sue someone is to legally prosecute that person.
2. Foster is verb that can also be used as an adjective. It means to nurture and promote (verb) and adopted (adjective), as in the noun phrase ‘foster son’ (adopted son as opposed to a biological son)
3. Prosecute is a verb; to prosecute is to try someone in a court of law, i.e. to sue someone
4. Obey is a verb that means to follow or go along with a rule or order
5. Disallow is a verb that is the antonym of ‘to allow.’
It is clear from this that foster (option 2) is the right choice. It is an antonym of persecute. No other option is a synonym or antonym of persecute

4. CONTINENTAL

A) Spatial
B) European
C) Mnemonic
D) Jettison
E) Floating
Correct answer: B

Solution :

Continental is an adjective. As the name suggests, something that is continental would have the attributes of a continent. It would thus be of a big geographical size, terrestrial rather than oceanic, and it would include the whole range of climatic regions.
1. Spatial is an adjective derived from the noun space. It means relating to space
2. European is a common noun and an adjective. A resident of Europe is thus a European (noun) and that which contains the qualities of Europe is also European (adjective). Note that the adjective European stands for the adjective Continental with a capital C, as in the noun phrase Continental breakfast (European breakfast)
3. Mnemonic is a common noun and an adjective. Anything that aids the memory is a mnemonic (noun), and anything that aids the memory is thus a mnemonic thing (adjective)
4. Jettison is a verb; it means to throw out with force, to stop associating with something
5. Floating is the present participle of the verb ‘to float’ and is thus used as an adjective. That which is floating is carried on the surface of water or any other liquid; it does not sink in water
The obvious answer is option 2 (European). No other listed option can be used as a synonym or antonym of Continental.

5. CONVIVIAL

A) Frigid
B) Stupid
C) Social
D) Violation
E) Inimical
Correct answer: C

Solution :

The word convivial is an adjective. Convivial people would be those that like living together, especially those that like to eat together.
1. Frigid is an adjective that means extremely cold or completely lacking in warmth of emotion
2. Stupid is an adjective that means foolish and idiotic
3. Social is an adjective from the noun society (the other adjective from this noun is societal). Those who like to live in groups are social creatures
4. Violation is a common noun that means infringement, transgression, disobeyance, etc.
5. Inimical is an adjective that means antagonistic, like an enemy, etc.
It is clear from this that the right answer has to be option 3 (social), which is a synonym of convivial. No other option is either a synonym or antonym of convivial.

Directions: In each of the following questions five options are given, of which one word is most nearly the same or opposite in meaning to the given word in the question. Find the correct option having either same or opposite meaning.

6. RESTIVE

A) Calm
B) Easy
C) Overturned
D) Greedy
E) Entire
Correct answer: A

Solution :

Restive is an adjective, and it means ‘agitated,’ ‘restless,’ etc. Neither easy nor overturned or greedy or entire can be its antonym or synonym. Calm (1) is the right choice.
1. Calm (adjective): quiet; un-agitated
2. Easy (adjective): not difficult
3. Overturned (adjective): turned upside down; rejected; quashed; repealed
4. Greedy (adjective): covetous, avaricious; desirous of acquiring
5. Entire (adjective): complete; thorough

7. DOCTOR

A) Curse
B) Condemn
C) Manipulate
D) Adjust
E) Cheat
Correct answer: C

Solution :

As a verb, the commonest meaning of the phrasal verb ‘to doctor’ is ‘to manipulate,’ ‘to distort,’ etc. Note that both are negative meanings. Thus 3 (manipulate) is the right choice, not 4 (adjust), given that (4) has a positive meaning.
1. Curse (noun): bane; malediction; affliction; to curse (verb): to put a malediction on something or someone
2. Condemn (verb): to criticize very heavily; to subject to heavy criticism and punishment
3. Manipulate (verb): to try to influence and control by unfair means, especially to one’s own advantage
4. Adjust (verb): to change (something) in a small way so as to make it perform better
5. Cheat (noun and verb): a deceiver; a conman; a fraudulent person (noun); and ‘to deceive;’ ‘to behave dishonestly with others’ (verb)

8. VOLATILE

A) Stable
B) Angry
C) Real
D) Impartial
E) Patient
Correct answer: A

Solution :

Volatile is an adjective that means unstable, easily provoked, etc. Thus that which is volatile is likely to likely to change in a very sudden or extreme way. 1 is the right choice, though 5 (patient) also comes close as a synonym.
1. Stable (noun and adjective): building in which horses are kept (noun); in a state or condition that is likely to change (adjective)
2. Angry (adjective): offensively unhappy
3. Real (adjective): actual; genuine
4. Impartial (adjective): fair; non-partisan; not taking sides
5. Patient (noun and adjective): someone who is ill and under medical care (noun); showing calmness; not showing haste (adjective)

9. TARDY

A) Premature
B) Patient
C) Disorganized
D) Brilliant
E) Ugly
Correct answer: C

Solution :

Tardy is an adjective. It means slow and disorganized. Thus the right choice is 3 (disorganized). This is so because the delay associated with tardy progress is mainly on account of its disorganized, unplanned nature.
1. Premature (adjective): before one’s scheduled time; not ready; unprepared
2. Patient (noun and adjective): someone who is ill and under medical care (noun); showing calmness; not showing haste (adjective)
3. Disorganized (adjective): Not organized; not in proper order and arrangement
4. Brilliant (adjective): shining bright; exceptionally good
5. Ugly (adjective): not beautiful; unattractive

10. ECONOMIZE

A) Spend
B) Save
C) Starve
D) Afford
E) Acquire
Correct answer: B

Solution :

The phrasal verb ‘to economize’ means to spend wisely and therefore to spend less. Looking at the options, both 1 and 2 are contenders for the right choice. 2 is the better choice because the synonym for ‘to economize’ would be ‘to save’ but its antonym would be ‘to spend wisely,’ not just ‘to spend.’
1. Spend (verb): to incur expenses; to give away something, usually money, for acquiring something else
2. Save (verb and conjunction): to keep with oneself; to not spend or give way (verb); except (conjunction)
3. Starve (verb): famish; go without food
4. Afford (verb): to be able to pay for something
5. Acquire (verb): get, obtain

Directions: In each of the following questions five options are given, of which one word is most nearly the same or opposite in meaning to the given word in the question. Find the correct option having either same or opposite meaning.

11. PLAUDITS

A) Pheasants
B) Discourse
C) Praise
D) Voyages
E) Rewards
Correct answer: C

Solution :

‘Plaudits’ is a common noun that is always spelt with an ‘s.’ It means ‘praise,’ ‘commendations,’ etc.
Word in sentence: The Indian team deserves plaudits for the fine show that they put up against Olympic champions Germany in last night’s hockey match at the Rio Olympics.
1. ‘Pheasants’ is a plural common noun, the singular of which is pheasant. A pheasant is a large, colorful bird usually eaten by human beings, i.e. a table bird. Peacocks, bustards, grouse, etc. are pheasants. Do not confuse the word pheasants with the similar sounding pageants (shows) and peasants (poor farmers).
2. Discourse is a common noun. The entire body of ideas–both verbal and written–surrounding a topic, issue or concern is a discourse. A discourse is also used as synonym for philosophy, debate, symposium, etc.
3. Praise is a common noun and verb. As a noun it means words written spoken in approval of something, and as a verb it means to ‘to offer praise.’
4. ‘Voyages’ is a plural common noun. Voyages are long journeys undertaken across seas and oceans. Even space exploration is a voyage; it is a space voyage.
5. ‘Rewards’ is a plural common noun. A reward is the credit that one gets for a creditable performance, most typically a material reward.
Looking at the options, 3 (praise) is the right choice. It is a synonym of ‘plaudits.’ Option 5 comes close enough as a synonym of ‘plaudits,’ but we will have to remember that a reward is usually a material recognition whereas praise is typically in words.

12. MALFEASANCE

A) Plurality
B) Corruption
C) Pisciculture
D) Solitude
E) Neutrality
Correct answer: B

Solution :

Malfeasance is a common noun and an abstract noun. It means an act of financial dishonesty, i.e. corruption relating to money.
Word in sentence: Soon after it was found that the office boy had stolen money from the office drawer, he was dismissed from his job on grounds of malfeasance.
1. Plurality is an abstract noun that refers to ‘multiplicity,’ i.e. the state of being more than one.
2. Corruption is an abstract noun that refers to dishonesty or wrongful use of power and privileges, mostly for personal gains
3. Pisciculture is a noun that refers to scientific fish farming.
4. Solitude is an abstract noun that refers to the state of being alone (isolation), i.e. the state of being without company.
5. Neutrality is an abstract noun. It means impartiality or the state of being disinterested, like that exhibited by a judge sitting in judgment on a case.
Looking at the options, corruption comes closest to malfeasance. No other listed option is either a synonym or an antonym of malfeasance. Option 2 is the right choice.
Note: The presence of the prefix ‘mal’ in ‘malfeasance’ should tell you straightaway that the word should have a negative meaning, given that ‘mal’ stands for ‘bad.’ Looking at the options, you can note that corruption is the only word that has a clearly negative meaning.

13. LIMBO

A) Helpless
B) Disease
C) Uncertainty
D) Perfection
E) Excitement
Correct answer: C

Solution :

Limbo is a proper noun that is typically employed as a common noun. It refers to the space that lies between heaven and earth. Those who get caught up in a limbo are those whose fate is still undecided, i.e. those who fate is uncertain. Thus limbo is a metaphor for a situation of uncertainty.
Word in sentence: With my examination scheduled for tomorrow and my admit card yet to reach me, I find myself in a limbo right now.
1. Helpless is an adjective. One who is helpless cannot be helped in any way.
2. Disease is a common noun. A disease is a physical or psychic condition that results from loss of health. Synonyms for disease would be ‘ailment,’ ‘distemper,’ ‘malady,’ etc.
3. Uncertainty is a common noun that is the antonym of certainty. Where there is lack of certainty, i.e. where there is doubt, there is uncertainty.
4. Perfection is an abstract noun. It comes from the adjective ‘perfect,’ which means ‘lacking in fault,’ ‘ideal,’ etc. Thus a thing that shows perfection is a thing that does not exhibit any shortcomings.
5. Excitement is an abstract noun. It refers to the feeling that arises in eager expectation or anticipation of something that is expected to take place or is already taking place.
Considering the listed options, uncertainty (3) must be the right answer. Uncertainty is a synonym of limbo. No other listed option is a synonym or antonym of limbo.

14. TRADUCE

A) Explore
B) Amble
C) Extol
D) Diminish
E) Strangle
Correct answer: C

Solution :

Traduce is a verb. It means to criticize very heavily, condemn, etc.
Word in sentence: After the team had lost heavily, the vice-captain traduced the policies of the new coach at the post-match team meeting.
1. Explore is a verb. To explore a place is to move about and around that place to get to know better about it.
2. Amble is a verb. To amble is to walk at a less than brisk place.
3. Extol is a verb. To extol someone would be to praise that person. Similarly, to extol someone’s virtues would be to sing the praises of that person’s good qualities.
4. Diminish is a verb. To diminish is to lessen, i.e. grow smaller in size.
5. Strangle is a verb. To strangle is to throttle, i.e. to make movement difficult, especially breathing movement. As such, if your windpipe gets throttled, you may die.
The options tell us that extol (3) is an antonym of traduce. No other listed option is a synonym or antonym of traduce. 3 is the right choice.

15. INSOUCIANCE

A) Tastelessness
B) Timidity
C) Aloofness
D) Poverty
E) Ambience
Correct answer: C

Solution :

Insouciance is an abstract noun. It refers to the unwillingness of people to socialize, i.e. to mix, with others. Insouciant is the adjective that we get from this noun. An insouciant person would be someone who maintains a distance from others and is therefore aloof. Note that insouciance is always a negative trait of personality, implying nearly the same as arrogance and sense of superiority.
Word in sentence: Insouciant players cannot contribute building team solidarity and confidence.
1. Tastelessness is an abstract noun that refers to ‘lack of flavor.’ For example, the tastelessness of this beer can be attributed to the fact that it has been kept in the open for the last three days.
2. Timidity is an abstract noun that refers to ‘shyness,’ ‘fear,’ ‘inhibition,’ etc.
3. Aloofness an abstract noun that refers to the quality of staying away from social contacts and interaction.
4. Poverty is an abstract noun. It is the opposite of wealth and prosperity. Synonyms for poverty would be ‘want,’ ‘lack,’ ‘dearth,’ ‘indigence,’ etc.
5. Ambience is also an abstract noun. It means ‘surroundings,’ ‘environment,’ etc. For example, the ambience at a get-together for old-time friends would be extremely friendly, whereas the ambience at an India-Pakistan cricket match would be electrifying, i.e. very exciting!
It is clear from this that aloofness (3) is the right choice. While it is a synonym of insouciance, no other listed option is either a synonym or an antonym of insouciance.

Directions: In each of the following questions five options are given, of which one word is most nearly the same or opposite in meaning to the given word in the question. Find the correct option having either same or opposite meaning.

16. LACKADAISICAL

A) Somnolent
B) Well-off
C) Unwarranted
D) Irreverent
E) Dynamic
Correct answer: E

Solution :

Lackadaisical is an adjective. It means slow-moving, sluggish, lacking in interest, evidently subdued, etc.
Word in sentence: The people of Kolkata are generally lackadaisical in dealing with professional matters, but when it comes to fish and football, their enthusiasm knows no bounds.
1. Somnolent is an adjective; it means sleepy, drowsy, etc.
2. Well-off is a hyphenated adjective. It means prosperous, rich, wealthy, etc.
3. Unwarranted is an adjective from the noun and verb ‘warrant.’ It means ‘without justification,’ ‘baseless,’ etc.
4. Irreverent is an adjective from the noun ‘revere.’ It means ‘lacking in respect.’
5. Dynamic is an adjective from the noun dynamo. A dynamic person would be one who is constantly engaged in doing several things at the same time or at least has the capability for multi-tasking.
It is clear from the above that the right answer is 5. Dynamic is an antonym of lackadaisical, but no other listed option is either a synonym or an antonym of lackadaisical. Note that somnolent can be a synonym of lackadaisical in a figurative sense.
Note: Always go for options that are closer to the given word in a literal sense! This is why we have marked option 5 (dynamic) as our answer to this question ahead of option 1 (somnolent).

17. PROGENITOR

A) Critic
B) Offspring
C) Encouragement
D) Backer
E) Deacon
Correct answer: B

Solution :

Progenitor is a common noun. It means ‘parent,’ ‘ancestor,’ etc.
Word in sentence: The progenitors of the Indian people include not only Caucasoids but also Mongoloids and proto-Australoids.
1. Critic is a common noun. A critic is someone who holds or expresses an unfavorable opinion about something. A critic may also be someone who holds a balanced view of something or someone.
2. Offspring is a common noun that is never pluralized, even though it may be used as both singular and plural. It means ‘biological children,’ ‘issue,’ etc.
3. Encouragement is an abstract noun, i.e. it cannot be pluralized. It means ‘something (words, actions and gestures) that motivates people to do something.’ It is obvious that we will get encouragement from people who support us and circumstances that favor us.
4. Backer is a common noun. A backer is a seconder, a supporter.
5. Deacon is a common noun. A deacon is a church minister.
This tells us that the right answer to this question is option 2 (offspring); it is an antonym of progenitor. No other listed option is an antonym or a synonym of progenitor.

18. CONTINGENT

A) Satisfied
B) Squad
C) Torrent
D) Mammoth
E) Momentous
Correct answer: B

Solution :

Contingent is a common noun and an adjective that can also be used as an adverb. As a common noun it refers to a group of people formed for a specific purpose, i.e. a team.
Word in sentence: The Indian contingent (noun) for the Rio Olympics contains a promising, young woman gymnast from the State of Odisha/Whether India will win or lose their next match is contingent (adjective and adverb) on the nature of the pitch, i.e. whether India wins or loses the next match is dependent on the nature of the pitch on which they will be playing.
1. Satisfied is an adjective. A satisfied person would be one who is happy with his or her position or situation. In other words, a satisfied person would not complain about his/her lot in a given situation or life as a whole
2. Squad is a common noun; it stands for ‘side,’ ‘team,’ etc.
3. Torrent is a common noun. It refers to a fast-moving, strong vertical or horizontal flow of water/some other liquid. Figuratively speaking, a torrent would also be used to refer to an outpouring of strong emotions.
4. Mammoth is a common noun and adjective. As a noun, a mammoth is a large, extinct mammal that lived on the earth during the last Ice Age. And as an adjective, it means ‘very big,’ ‘gigantic,’ etc.
5. Momentous is an adjective. It means ‘historic,’ ‘very important,’ etc.
Looking at this, it is clear that the right answer to this question is option 2 (squad), which is a synonym of contingent as a noun. No other listed option is an antonym or a synonym of contingent.

19. INUNDATION

A) Blizzard
B) Deluge
C) Subservient
D) Guarantee
E) Embankment
Correct answer: B

Solution :

Inundation is a noun that is more commonly used as an abstract than a common noun. It stands for ‘flooding,’ ‘deluge,’ etc.
Word in sentence: The inundation of large parts of Mumbai during the monsoon season every year is something that we can take for granted.
1. Blizzard is a common noun. It means a snow storm.
2. Deluge is a common noun and verb. As a noun it means ‘flooding,’ ‘over-flowage,’ ‘submergence,’ etc. And as a verb, it means ‘to flood,’ ‘to submerge,’ etc.
3. Subservient is an adjective. A person with a subservient attitude will be one who is happy to serve others from an inferior, subordinate position.
4. Guarantee is a common noun and verb. As a common noun it means an assurance that something that is promised will actually be fulfilled. And as an adjective it means ‘to offer an assurance that something that is promised will actually be fulfilled.”
5. Embankment is a common noun. An embankment is the raised shore of a water body like a pond, river or lake. This prevents the water body from overflowing or enables transportation channels like roads and rail tracks to be built over and across them.
From this it is clear that right answer to this question is option 2 (deluge used as a noun), which is a synonym of inundation. No other listed option is an antonym or a synonym of inundation.

20. RETRENCH

A) Harness
B) Recruit
C) Regurgitate
D) Promote
E) Fascinate
Correct answer: B

Solution :

Retrench is a verb that means ‘to cut down on the work force to reduce business costs.’ Retrenched workers are often removed from their current job and assigned a less paying job; i.e. a retrenched worker need not be one who gets removed from employment altogether. Thus a worker who gets placed in less-paying is also a retrenched worker.
Word in sentence: I am going to recruit (verb) some mathematics teachers for my newly-opened coaching institute/The army recruits (plural common noun) from last year appear fitter than the ones recruited this year.
1. Harness is a common noun and verb. As a verb it means to ‘put to productive use, especially to produce energy.’ Thus rivers are harnessed (verb in passive voice) by putting dams across their flow for producing electricity. And horses are formally harnessed (verb in passive voice) just before the beginning of a horse race. And as a noun, a harness is the rope or cloth used for strapping animals like bulls and horses together and using them as beasts of burden or draught animals.
2. Recruit is a common noun and verb. As a noun, a recruit is someone who gets enlisted in the armed forces or any other work force, i.e. a probationer, a worker who is a newcomer to the concerned work force. And as a verb, to recruit someone to a workforce would be to select someone as a new worker in that work force
3. Regurgitate is a verb. To regurgitate is to bring back swallowed food into the mouth in order to chew it more thoroughly. In a figurative sense, to regurgitate a piece of information would be repeat that information without properly knowing its practical implications. Often we find cattle regurgitating the food that they have swallowed and chewing the cud.
4. Promote is a verb. To promote someone would be to give that person a higher status, especially in an office or other professional concern. Figuratively speaking, to promote an idea would be to encourage that idea and try to make it acceptable at a larger scale. Likewise, a company that wishes to promote its goods and services may launch an advertising campaign for the purpose.
5. Fascinate is a verb. To fascinate someone would be to hold that person’s attention, i.e. to attract that person’s attention, or even to captivate that person by hypnotizing him/her.
It is clear from this that the right answer to this question is option 2 (recruit as a verb), which is an antonym of retrench. No other listed option is an antonym or a synonym of retrench.
Note: The other close option is harness, but it is not as close enough as an antonym of recruit as is recruit (verb).

 

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